The Federal state budgetary institution "The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory" (named after A. I. Voeikov), or FSBI "MGO", is the oldest meteorological institution in Russia. The history of MGO is a record of breakthroughs in the Earth's atmosphere science. MGO is the Russia's pioneer in climatology, dynamic meteorology, aerology, actinometry, a number of atmospheric physics disciplines (cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, boundary layer physics), atmospheric diffusion and air pollution research.
The MGO objective is research and development in the field of:
- long-range weather forecasting, climate theory, general and applied climatology, cloud physics and weather control , monitoring of the atmospheric condition, air pollution and precipitation chemistry;
- methods development for creation and operation of weather observation networks, atmospheric condition, air pollution and precipitation chemistry monitoring networks; the development of methods, instruments, measurement data systems and informatioin technologies for meteorology; metrological support, standardization and certification for meteorology; aviation weather support;
- assessment of efficiency of hydrometeorological data use in economic sectors, including the efficiency of active influence on hydrometeorological and other geophysical processes.
MGO is the Roshydromet's steering center for its weather, actinometric, heat balance, aviation weather, radio-meteorological, and ozonometric observations; for monitoring of atmospheric electricity, precipitation chemistry, air pollution and background air composition (by a number of components); and for the works in general and applied climatology.